National Peasant Movement Institute
The Former Site of the National Peasant Movement Institute in Guangzhou.
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The National Peasant Movement Institute used to be a school where the Chinese Communist Party trained revolutionary cadres during the First Revolutionary Civil War (1924-1927). From July 1, 1924 to the end of 1925, the Party Committee of Guangdong Province ran five terms of the peasant Movement institute in Guangzhou, aiming at training cadres for the peasant Movement in Guangdong area.
Mao Zeding (1893-1976) had attached great importance to the Chinese peasantry problem. In his early revolutionary activities, he went to the rural areas and made an extensive investigation and study of the peasantry problem. To cope with the rapid development of the nationwide Peasant movement, he came to Guangzhou and directed the National Peasant Movement Institute here in May 1926, namely, the sixth term of the Peasant Movement Institute. Some famous communists like Zhou Enlai, Xiao Chunü, Peng Pai, and Yun Daiying also taught here. Students of this term, totaling 327, came from 20 provinces and regions. They were workers, peasants, school teachers and young students selected and sent here by the Party organizations in different areas. The Institute offered 25 courses, the main course being the study of Marxism-Leninism and the basic problem of the Chinese revolution, namely the peasantry problem. Comrade Mao Zedong personally lectured on there subjects such “The Problem of the Chinese Peasantry,” “Rural Education,” and “Geography.” He also gave a special lecture on his brilliant works—“Analysis of Classes in the Chinese Society,” which correctly solved a series of fundamental problems such as the task, the targets and the motive force of the Chinese revolution and laid a solely correct strategic foundation for the Chinese new democratic revolution.
In September 1926, the Northern Expedition in which the Chinese Communist Party actively participated was developing victoriously, and a great rural revolution with Hunan as its center emerged all over China. In order to strengthen the Party’s leadership over the Peasant movements, the students graduated ahead of schedule. They went back to their local Peasant movements. They made great contributions to the liberation cause of the Chinese people during the protracted revolutionary struggle.
The seat of the Institute was located on the place, which a Confucius temple was built in the early Ming Dynasty. Enclosed with red walls, it looks simple yet stately, boasting picturesque surroundings with towering kapok trees, the luxuriant growth of grass and green bamboo setting off each other in its courtyard. It suffered a great deal during the rule of the Kuomintang. In 1953 the Party and the people’s government opened it as a revolutionary museum, where visitors can view and study the exhibited documents, articles and photos concerning the Institute and the peasant Movement at that time.