Located at the south flank of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, Jiangxi Province is the hinterland of the Pearl River Delta.
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Ancestors of today’s residents used flint implements to exploit this rich land more than 5,000 years ago. A town was first built in over 200 BC. In 202 BC, of the Western Han Dynasty, Yuzhang Jun (jun used to be an ancient administrative division equal to a present-day prefecture) was established, which governed a county named Nanchang. Since then, a county or a Jun or a Province was set up in this area. At the beginning of the Southern Tang Dynasty (937-975) it was once made the southern capital. Nanchang, under various the names of Nanchang, Yuzhang, and Honghu has existed for more than 2,000 years. In 1926, the Northern Expeditionary Army北伐军 occupied Nanchang, and it became a municipality. On August 1, 1927, Zhou Enlai, Zhu De, he Long, Ye Ting, Liu Bocheng, and other revolutionary leaders led the famous Nanchang Uprising, which sent shock waves throughout the world, firing the first shot against the Kuomintang reactionaries.
Located at the south flank of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, Jiangxi Province is the hinterland of the Pearl River Delta, the Yangtze River Delta and the Southeast Fujian Delta. It is also an important area along the Yangtze River economic belt and the Beijing-Kowloon Railway. The Province is rich in natural resources, arable land, water, forest, and minerals. The Province boasts more than 140 kinds of mineral resources. Reserves include non-ferrous metals, rare earth and rare metals, such as copper, silver, gold, tantalum, rubidium, cesium, scandium, sulphur, and powder quartz, Other important mineral reserves include uranium, marble, kaolin, granite and fluorite. The Dexing Copper Mine is the largest of its kind in Asia. The Guixi Smelting Plant is China’s largest copper smelting one.
The province’s freshwater coverage accounts for 10 per cent of the total of China—and the Poyang Lake is China’s largest freshwater lake. Forest covers more than half of the land.
Since the Beijing-Kowloon Railway opened to traffic, the Province has become the hub of transport of North China, East China, South China, Hong Kong and Macao. The Province boasts four civil airports including Nanchang, Jiujiang, Jingdezhen and Ganzhou airports. Since the opening-up and reform in 1978, the Province has witnessed great achievements in economic and social progress. The ubiquitous picturesque scenery of the Province attracts the tourist from home and abroad. The following are highlights of what can be Seen in the province: the Lushan Mountain, the Jinggang Mountain, the Sanqing Mountain, and the Longhu Mountain, of which the Lushan Mountain was selected as a World Heritage by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization in 1996. The tourist can feast his /her eyes on natural beauty all the year round. In spring, azaleas in full bloom cover the Jinggang Mountain with burning red. In hot summer, the Lushan Mountain shelters the tourist. In autumn, the Sanqing Mountain stands high against the birds flying over the rippling waves of the Poyang Lake. The lake is the largest fresh-water and one of the most celebrated lakes in China, located in the northern part of Jiangxi Province. It encompasses 3,583 square kilometers, the lake surface being 21 meters above seas level; the lake is up to 16 meters deep. The city of Jingdezhen is noted for its porcelain ware. It is a magnet for visitors both at home and abroad.
Lushan Mountain (Mount Lushan) 庐山
To Lushan residents, the connection between Mount Lushan, culture and history dates back to more than 6,000 years. Its grotesque peakes and spectacular streams have been witnesses to religious, academic and political events.
More than 4,000 poems, essays and over 400 Stone inscriptions praise Mount Lushan’ s charming scenery. Mount Lushan also boasts a 1,600-year history of international exchanges. The Mountain has offered shelter and retreat for monks and priests practicing Buddhism, Taoism, Christianity, Catholicism and the faith of the Orthodox Eastern Church. More than 360 temples and churches have been built on the Mountain over the years. The setting creates a spectacular landscape.
Mount Lushan is famous for its magnificent scenery during different seasons. In spring, it is like a dream wreathed in swathes of thick mist; in summer, abundant rains drench the mountain; the autumn views are intoxicating; and in winter, the Mountain changes into a world of white jade, covered by thick snow and frost. The summit has views that are beyond comparison on a clear day.
At the 20th Conference of the UN World Heritage Committee, held in Mexico in 1996, Mount Lushan was approved for inclusion on the list of “World Cultural Heritage.”
A cinema was built at the foot of Mount Lushan. It has shown the film “The Romance at Lushan” nearly 10,000 times over the past 20-odd years, and its audiences have now reached over 1.5 million. The cinema claims the longest showing of a single film, the largest number of showings for a single film and the greatest number of viewers to a single cinema for the same movie. This record will be further secured, because the movie is still being shown. It has become a must for tourists traveling to Mount Lushan. Fall foliage renders any vista in the region positively breathtaking.
The late Chairman Mao Zedong held three important meeting in 1959, 1961, and 1970 respectively in Mount Lushan. Mount Lushan is the only Mountain where the tourist can find more than 1,000 villas, displaying the characteristic features of 18 countries and monuments to 6 religions. The 302-square-kilometer scenic region features 470 scenic spots and more than 170 peaks. Hanyang Peak is the highest, with an elevation of 1,474 meters above sea level. China planned in August 2000 to build 310 geological parks in the next 10 years to protect its natural sites, eight of which were put on the world geo-heritage list by UNESCO on February 13, 2004. Those eight parks are Mt. Lushan in Jiangxi Province, Mt. Huangshan in Anhui Province, Mt. Yuntai and Mt. Songshan in Henan Province, Stone Forest in Yunnan Province, Danxia geomorphology (or morphology) in Guangdong Province, Zhangjiajie in Hunan Province, an Wudalianchi in Heilongjiang Province. 2004年2月13日，中国江西庐山、安徽黄山、河南云台山和嵩山、云南石林、广东丹霞、湖南张家界、黑龙江五大连池八处地质公园被联合国教科文组织命名为全球首批世界地质公园。Experts agreed that Mount Lushan features the remains of the Fourth Ice Age and is valuable in the study of geology, ecology, meteorology, and botany. In addition to hundreds of natural tourism sights, Lushan Mountain also has 200 newly discovered geological remains of significant importance. Those who make it to the top will be rewarded with scenery rivaling that of any other area in the province.
Stone Bell Hill 石钟山
Stone Bell Hill is located near Jiujiang, By the side of Poyang Lake in Jiangxi Province. Standing on the summit of the Stone Bell Hill, at an elevation of 61 meters, the tourist can enjoy a panoramic view of the vast blur lake, Poyang Lake, the mighty Yangtze River and the misty Mount Lushan. The tourist will be deeply impressed by the extensive water surface, distant mountains, the boundless sky and the carefree clouds. According to the “Classics of Waters水经” written by Sang Qin of the Han Dynasty 汉代桑钦 , the Stone Bell Hill stands at the mouth of Peng Li (former name for Poyang Lake). Why was it called the Stone Bell Hill ? Opinions have varied over hundreds of years. Legend has it that two treasured bells in the Lingxiao Hall of the Emperor of Heaven 玉皇灵霄殿fell to earth right here, forming two Stone bell hills. The one beside the lake is the upper hill and the one near the River is the lower hill. This article only covers the lower Stone Bell Hill. Li Daoyuan, a hydrographer of the Northern Wei Dynasty 北魏水文地理学家郦道元， Deemed that as there is a dep pond at the foot of the Stone Bell Hill, when gentle breeze stirs up the waves, the water would beat the rocks and make a loud sound like that of a large bell, hence the name. Li Bo, the magistrate of Jiujiang in the Tang Dynasty (618-907) 唐代九江刺史李渤, found twin stones lying beside the pond sat the foot of the hills, which gave ambiguous and clear sounds while being struck. Therefore, he believed that the hill was named after the stones. Su Shi of the Song Dynasty (960-1279) sailed in a boat in moonlit night to the foot of a cliff of the Stone Bell Hill. He was there the surging waves in the crevices and caves of rocks beating against each other and heard the deep sonorous sound of bell that resulted. He then sighed for the simplicity of the description of Li Daoyuan and laughed at the narrowness of Li Bo’s judgement. All these three famous scholars expressed their views that Stone Bell Hill was named after its sound. Another argument was that the Stone Bell Hill is pointed in the upper part, wide in the lower part and curved in the middle, resembling a bell, hence its name. This argument held that the hill was named after its shape. The third explanation was that as the hill has both the sound of bell and the shape of a bell, it was called the Stone Bell Hill. It seems that the last argument is more comprehensive and scientific.
At “Return Home Pavilion,” it seems that Tao Yuanming陶渊明 (365 to 372 or 376-4270 , the magistrate of Pengze 彭泽令 1,500 years ago, was still drunk and lying on a rock. He was determined not to make curtsies for his salary of five bushels of rice and to abandon his official post and return home to lead a carefree life. There are over dozens of pavilions scattered here and there, picturesque and spectacular. The Stone Bell Hill is located at a strategic position between the Yangtze River and Poyang Lake, usually called the “key point to the River and the lake.” It has always been a place contended by parties to hostilities in war. It was the place where Zhou Yu of the State of Wu in the Three Kingdom period trained naval forces 东吴周瑜操练水师与此 ; It was the place where Zhu Yuanzhang (1328-1398, ruled 1368-1398), first emperor of the Ming Dynasty, wiped out the army of Chen Youliang and conquered the land south of the Yangtze River 朱元璋灭陈友谅评定江南于此 ; It was the place where the heroes of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Revolution left their relics of fierce battles 太平天国英雄百战遗故垒于此 ;It was also the place where Li Liejun (1882-1946) of the Republic established after the Revolution of 1911 held a rally to pledge resolution to the punitive expedition against Yuan Shikai (1859-1916) standing on the ancient battlefield of Stone Bell Hill and looking at the east-flowing river, the tourist can imagine how many heroes were washed away by the waves. 民国李烈钧讨伐袁世凯誓师于此。石钟古战场，看大江东去，浪淘尽多少英雄。
Stone Bell Hill is time-honoured and became a scenic spot long ago. Notables of past dynasties gathered here and left behind a number of valuable inscriptions of poems for Stone Bell Hill. According to rough calculation, more than 750 poems and over 100 pieces of calligraphy, paintings and inscriptions are now preserved which are in praise of Stone Bell Hill, including the works of such illustrious personages of past dynasties as Xie Lingyun 谢灵运 (385-433),Li Bai李白 (701-762), Bai Juyi白居易 (772-846), Wen Tianxiang 文天祥 (1236-1283), and Zhu Yuanzhang朱元璋,Nowadays the walls of Huan Xiang villa are still inlaid with four pieces of the handwriting of Wei Zheng of the Tang Dynasty 唐代魏征 (580-643), four painted screens of Su Shi of the Song Dynasty on the thrmes of plum, orchid, bamboo and chrysanthemum; six poetry screens of the handwriting of Huang Tingjian 黄庭坚 (1045-1105); and the two couplets of the handwriting of Zheng Banqiao (1693-1765) of the Qing Dynasty 清代郑板桥 .
The Stone Bell Hill has also been called the “Small Penglai” (a fabled abode of immortals in East China). Water and rocks all have their own unique features. With regard to the hill, its cliffs facing the water are very steep with crisscrossed crevices and caves of unknown depth. When the water rises to a certain level and rolling waves are blown by wind against the caves, thunderous sounds like that of a big bell can be heard. And when the wind becomes strong, terrifying waves would shake the rocks. The sound resembles that of the tide of the Qiantang River, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province or the collapse of Mount Taishan, Shandong Province. As for the water, look into the distance at the convergence of the vast Poyang Lake and the rolling Yangtze River, and the tourist will find the lake water coming from the south is clear while the River water coming from the west is muddy. These two currents of water flow abreast for nearly 25 kilometers before the water becomes entirely muddy. This is the demarcation line between the clear and muddy waters, and the sight is magnificent. In respect of its rocks, their shapes and colours are wonderful with such features as “wrinkles皱,” “brightness透,” “thinness瘦,” “leak漏” and “strangeness怪.” Some of the rocks are purplish red, and some of them can send out sound of a gold bell. Their shapes are multifarious and fantastic.
Jingdezhen (a city in Jiangxi Province, one of China’s leading porcelain manufacturing centers) porcelain first appeared in the Han Dynasty, with a history of about 2,000 years. Once the varieties of Jingdezhen porcelain were as many as 3,000. The characteristics of the Jingdezhe porcelain lies in the fact that “it is as white as jade, bright as mirror, thin as paper, and sound as chime景德镇瓷器素有“白如玉，明如镜，薄如纸，声如磬”之称.”
More About The Jiangxi Province
- Nanchang Introduction
Nanchang Introduction Nanchang is located in the north of Jiangxi Province and the lower reaches of Gan River.