Inner Mongolia Introduction
Inner Mongolia has started to speed up its economic development since the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949.
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Dubbed “the kingdom of animal husbandry” in China, the Inner Mongolia, one of the country’s most important stock breeding bases, is located in the upper reaches of the Yellow, Liaohe and Nenjiang rivers. According to geological structure, the region falls into six sections, encompassing the Inner Mongolia Plateau, Greater Xing’an Mountains, Yanshan Mountains, Ordos Plateau, Songliao and Hetao Plain. The region’s farm produces are mainly produced in the Hetao P;asin, the west of Liaohe Plain, Greater Xing’an Mountains, Yinshan Mountains and Yanshan Mountains. Around these areas, solar energy is enormous. The annual radiation quantity reaches 115-167 kilocalories. The radiation quantity from April to September, during which plants grow rapidly, constitutes 65 per cent of the year’s total. In this agricultural region, the average temperature is 2℃ to 8℃ . Frost-free period is 100 to 165 days. Annual precipitation is 200 to 450 millimeters, declining from northeast to southwest. Seventy per cent of the precipitation concentrates in the June-August period when plants thrive. Crops in the region include wheat, corn, rice, soybean, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, potato, sugar beet, sunflower, flax and castor-oil plant. The wheat in Ba League, the corn in Zhe League and the soybe4an in Xing’an League are high-yielding, and therefore, the dominant crops in the whole region.
Plateaus, with an altitude of more than 1,000 meters, dominate the landscape of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. All the plateaus are grossly called the Inner Mongolia. There are mountains such as Mount Greater Xing’an, Mount Helan, Mount Wula and Mount Daqing. The Inner Mongolian grasslands are of a vast expanse; the two most famous grasslands are the Hulunbuir Grassland and Xinlingol Grassland. Famous lakes refer to Lake Hulun and Buir. The Yellow River—the second longest river in China—flows through the southwestern part of the region. Inner Mongolia belongs to temperate continental and monsoon climate.
The region’s role can be summed up as “the largest ecological protective screen in the north, the vanguard of opening-up to countries bordering North China and a major resource provider.”
Inner Mongolia has started to speed up its economic development since the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949. Its main industries include mining, metallurgy and rare-earth metal, etc. There are over 60 kinds of minerals, among them rare earth metal, coal and silver are of big reserves. The pastureland in Inner Mongolia is the largest in China. The forestry in Mount Greater Xing’an has a big accumulation of timbers. The region is of China’s important animal husbandry bases, with fertile grasslands. Famous livestock species include Sanhe horse, Sanhe ox and Inner Mongolia fuzz sheep. The local produces of fine quality include old-styled purely fur, carpet, goat wool, “facai 发菜”---nostoc flagelliforme born et flah, saint gorgeous mushroom, and the Yellow River carp.
The 880,000-square-kilometer grassland in Inner Mongolia is fertile and enjoys a splendid view. The Hulunbuir and Xinlingol prairies are the most well known grasslands in the region. Furthermore, countless attractions are scattered amid the primitive forests of the Greater Xing’an Mountains, Badain Jaran Desert and Tengger Desert. Other prime attractions include Genghis Khan’s Mausoleum, Tomb of Wang Zhaojun, Wu Dang Lamasery and Temple of Five Pagodas. Each year there is the traditional “Nadam (meaning entertainment or recreation) Fair 那达幕大会” in a bid to celebrate a bumper harvest, and the hospitable Inner Mongolian people are awaiting visitors from home and abroad and greeting them with fragrant ghee (clarified butter from the butterfat of cow or other milk) tea. The cemetery of the father of the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368) Genghis Khan (1162-1227), the Sino-Russian market in Manzhouli and the Genentala Prairie all have been appraised as 4A tourist destinations by the National Tourism Admininstration of China.
In Mongolain, “Nadam” means “recreation /play” or “entertainment” It is said that Genghis Khan, a Mongolian monarch who succeeded in 1209 in conquering vast swathes of Asia and establishing a unified regime, held “Nadam” regularly to keep his soldiers fit and happy. Seven hundred years later, Nadam has grown into the most famous traditional festival in the region. Wrestling, archery and horseracing are the three main sporting attractions. Rooted in the midst of antiquity, the three events once served as official tests, male courage and expertise. They maintain a similar function today, and are extremely popular among Mongolian men living on the grasslands. Usually taking place during the period from May to June, the year 2000 marked the first Nadam to have been held in winter, when snow and ice covered most parts of the Hulunbuir League. Although daytime temperatures fell as low as minus 30 ℃, up to 500 amateur wrestlers, horse racers, and archers from seven countries, including China, the United States, Russia, Italy, Kazakhstan, Mexico, the Republic of Korea, arrived to take part in the three-day Winter festivity.
Hulun Lake 呼伦湖
It is a bright pearl in the middle of the pastureland. The lake is also known as the Dalai Lake. Dalai means sea. It is about 80 kilometers in length and 33 kilometers approximately in width. It encompasses 2,339 square kilometers and is the fifth largest freshwater lake trailing Boyang Lake, Dongting Lake, Lake Tai, and Hongze Lake in China. The boundless water makes visitors feel as if they were standing on the edge of the sea. Some 31 varieties of fish and shrimp teem in the lake. To preserve these resources, the local government has banned fishing during the reproductive season. It is said that it is more fun to go angling in winter. Fishermen drill holes through the thick ice and fish through the hole. The harvests that can be reaped from the frozen lake make it worthwhile despite the biting cold. The 151-kilometer-long Huhhot-Baotou Expressway was completed in December 2001 and has four lanes and allows automobiles to run at a speed of 120 kilometers per hour.
Hulunbuir Pasture Land 呼伦贝尔草原
The Hulunbuir League is in northeastern China and shares borders with Russia and Mongolia. It also has a territory of 253,000 square kilometers, almost as big as Shandong and Jiangsu provinces together. There are 31 ethnic groups living in the area. The Hulunbuir Pasture Land is one of the world’s largest unspoiled natural grasslands in the world, with a total land area of 80,000 square kilometers. The State Council has recently approved a plan to designate Hulunbuir League as a national ecology zone to carry out this policy. The league plans to turn 133,000 hectares (328,643 acres) of land into pastureland in 2001 and by the year 2005 there will be an extra 266,000 hectares (657,286 acres) of forest and grassland. It has been nicknamed China’s air conditioner and oxygen factory. It is said that there are hundreds of traditional Chinese herbs growing on the grasslands. The area’s mutton tastes fresh and good because the sheep eat these herbs. It is also said that the herbs can help people stay healthy. The herdsmen have perfected the cooking of mutton and use their animals’ milk to make button, cheese, milk tea, and milk wine.
Trench of Jin 金朝战壕
An 800-year-old wall stretching some 5,000 kilometers has been found in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The newly identified wall was built during 1123-1198 by the Nüzhen people, a nomadic tribe who established the Jin Dynasty. It extends from the western bank of the Nenjiang River in Heilongjiang Province to the city of Baotou in southern Inner Mongolia. The clay wall, called the “Trench of Jin,” features watchtowers, fortresses, and trenches along its outside.
China has a 2,000-year history of wall building, and boasts a total of 40,000 kilometers of walls in 16 provinces and autonomous regions. Some 15,000 kilometers of the walls were found in Inner Mongolia; the Trench of Jin is the longest. Another long wall built in the region by the Jin people runs from the northern foot of the Daxing’anling Mountains (Greater Xing’an Mountain Range), via grasslands in Inner Mongolia, to Mongolia.
Hohhot in Mongolian means green city—three sides of the city, except the south, are embraced by the once forest-rich Daqingshan, the Big Green Mountain. Located in the middle of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Hohhot has such industries as woolen textiles, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, hides processing (tan), sugar refinery, and daily products. Prime tourist attractions are Dazhao Lamasery, Zhaojun’s Tomb and Five-Pagoda Temple.
Dazhao Temple 大召寺
Tourists with an interest in Buddhism can easily spend a few hours visiting the city’s Dazhao Temple, one of the most important lamaseries in North China. They may find it very similar to the Lama Temple in Beijing, only on a smaller scale. The Dazhao Temple is the father Temple of the Lama Temple, as it was built for Emperor Kangxi (1654-1722, reigned 1662-1722) of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), while the Lama Temple in Beijing was built for his son Emperor Yongzheng (1678-1735, reigned 1723-1735).
Zhaojin Tomb 昭君墓
In Hohhot, the most famous tourist spot is the Zhaojin Tomb in the southwestern part of the city, which is in memory of Wang Zhaojun, an imperial concubine of the Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 220). In 22 BC, Chanyu, the supreme leader of the ancient Xionnü, or the Hun—a powerful nomadic group—made an offer of marriage to the Han royal court in order to build friendly telations. Beautiful as she was, Wang Zhaojin was selected. She went to the renmote wild region willingly and lived with the Xiongnü people for the rest of her life. People have remembered her contribution to ethnic unity from all groups in China for generations. Wang Zhaojun is considered one of the four beauties of ancient China.
More About Inner Mongolia
- Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan Genghis Khan Mausoleum and Genghis Khan Temple.