Chronicle of Macao
The Chronicle Of Macao Before And After Nightlife And Gambling.
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When Emperor Shihuang (259-210 BC, ruled 246-210 BC) of the Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC) unified China with force, Haojing, or present Macao, officially became part of the country. During the Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279), major events of Haojing began to appear in the official records of the Chinese government of the time.
In 1152, during the Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279), Xiangshan County was set up in Guangdong, and Haojin was made part of Xiangshan County.
In 1271, an army of the Yuan Dynasty based in North China attacked the south-based Southern Song Dynasty and forced the emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty to flee to Haojing and its surrounding areas with half a million troops and civilians. Southern Song’s troops beat off the Yuan army by holding their ground in hill fortresses in Haojing. After the battle some of the Southern Song troop soldiers and civilians stayed and settled down there.
In 1553, some Portuguese landed at Haojing and built temporary huts there under the pretext of drying up their soaked cargo. Afterwards, they tried to stay behind bribing local government officials of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644).
In 1557, the Portuguese occupied the area and named it Macao. They began to construct permanent facilities including residential and office buildings. The Portuguese successfully acquired the right to stay through bribery.
In 1563, the population of Macao reached 5,000-4,100 Chinese and 900 Portuguese. In 1573 the Portuguese inhabitants stared paying a ground rent to the Chinese government to the tune of 500 taels of silver a year.
In 1607, Lu Tinglong, a local scholar in Panyu, Guangdong Province, wrote to the Chinese government pleading, in vain, to drive out the Portuguese from Macao.
In 1616, the Portuguese government appointed its first governor to Macao, but he never took office.
In 1644, the Qing Dynasty came into being. The Qing government continued Ming government policies toward Macao and exercised sovereignty over the territory.
In 1685, the Chinese government adopted an open policy and set up a customs office in Macao. At the time, the Macao Customs was one of the four largest in the country.
In 1717, the Chinese government issued a ban prohibiting Chinese merchant ships from doing trade overseas, but Macao was exempted from the ban, that is to say, Chinese ships could do trade with the Portuguese.
In 1748, the Chinese cut the water supply to Macao after The Macao governor had connived at the killing of a Chinese person by a Portuguese soldier and refused to extradite the killer. Finally, the Portuguese gave in and the Macao governor was deprived of his position and sent back under escort.
On September 2nd, 1839, Lin Zexu (1785-1850), an imperial envoy of the Chinese government, made an inspection tour of Macao, seized opium and drove out foreign opium vendors.
On August 20, 1845, the Portuguese queen illegally declared Macao a free port and refused to continue paying a ground rent to China, despite protests by the Chinese government. In 1851, the Portuguese occupied Taipa Island.
In 1886, Portuguese formally demanded the right of permanent residence in and administration of Macao.
On December 1, 1887, government representatives from the two countries signed the Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Friendship and Trade. Under the treaty, the Qing government was forced to recognize the occupation of Macao by the Portuguese.
In 1890, Portuguese colonialists occupied Qingzhou in defiance of opposition from the Qing government, built roads there, and then re-leased the area to Britons. The Qingzhou-based Chinese marine troops were forced to move to Qianshan. Later, Portuguese colonialists built emplacements on Taipa and Coloane islands.
In 1893, Chinese revolutionary forerunner Dr Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925) and a Portuguese friend founded a newspaper in Macao to publicize revolutionary ideas, but it was closed two years later.
In 1897, Kang Youwei (1858-1927) founded a newspaper to publicize the well known Reformist Movement. The paper was shut down four years later.
In 1902, Portugal sent an envoy to China to hand over a note to the Chinese government asking to make Macao its appendage and to build a railway between Macao and Guangzhou. The requests were firmly turned down.
In 1905, Banco Nacional Ultramarino, SA, for the first time, issued the local currency, the pataca, in Macao.
In February 1909, the governments of China and Portugal agreed to examine Macao’s boundary. On July 15, representatives from both sides began to negotiate on boundary delimitation, but the talks ended in failure on November 14 of the same year.
In 1912, one year after the founding of the Republic of China in 1911, the Portuguese opened a “central prison” in Macao.
In 1913-14, the Portuguese envoy sent a note, regarding the delimitation of Macao, to the then Chinese government led by the Northern Warlords.
In 1916, the Macao Chamber of Commerce got its present Chinese name with the approval of the Chinese government.
In 1927, the Macao Peninsula covered an area of 5.42 square kilometers compared with 2.78 square kilometers in 1842, thanks to land reclamation from the sea. By this time, the population of Macao had reached 156,000, 97.2 per cent of whom were Chinese.
In 1928, with Article 54 of the Chinese-Portuguese Treaty having expired, the foreign ministry of the Kuomintang government of China sent a formal note to the Portuguese envoy declaring its abolition. On December 19, five new articles were added to the treaty to replace the abolished article.
In 1951, two years after the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the Portuguese Macao authorities joined in a US-led embargo against the People’s Republic of China, which was then engaged in the Korean War (1950-1953).
In January 1955, the Portuguese were forced to halt their preparations for the “400th anniversary of the opening of Macao,” due to strong protests by the Chinese Government.
In August 1958, the patriotic Macao Daily news was founded. On March 10, 1972, the Chinese Government, in a letter to the United Nations, pointed out that Macao was part of China and had been occupied by Portugal, and that China would resolve the issue peacefully.
On April 25, 1974, the new government of Portugal announced that Macao was not a colony but was Chinese territory under Portuguese administration.
In 1975, the Portuguese Government called back its troops in Macao, abolished Macao field army and navy commands, and integrated several police departments to form a unified Macao security force.
On February 8, 1979, China and Portugal established diplomatic relations and both sides reiterated that Macao was Chinese territory under Portuguese administration and that the two countries would resolve the issue at an appropriate time through friendly negotiations.
Between June and October 1986, representatives of the two governments held the first three rounds of talks on the Macao issue in Beijing.
From March 18-23, 1987, the fourth round of talks was held in Beijing, at which China and Portugal reached an agreement.
On April 13, 1987, China and Portugal formally signed the Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration on the Question of Macao in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing.
On June 23, 1987, the Standing Committee of the Sixth National People’s Congress (NPC) approved the Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration on the Question of Macao.
On September 21, 1987, Xinhua News Agency Macao Branch was set up, with Zhou Ding serving as director.
On December 11, 1987, the Portuguese congress approved the Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration.
On January 15, 1988, Chinese and Portuguese governments exchanged their instruments of ratification for the joint declaration in Beijing and thus Macao entered the period of transition.
On March 22, 1988, the joint declaration was registered and publicized at the United Nations.
On September 5, 1988, the Third Session of the Seventh National People’s Congress (NPC) Standing Committee approved the roll of the Drafting Committee for the Basic Law of the Macao Special Administrative Region (MSAR) of the People’s Republic of China (PRC).
On October 25, 1988, the Drafting Committee for the Basic Law of the MSAR held its first plenary session in Beijing.
On February 15, 1989, the Sino-Portuguese Joint Liaison Group began its formal operation in Macao.
On April 9, 1989, the roll of the 90-member Consulting Committee for the Basic Law of the MSAR was made public.
On April 10, 1991, the Sino-Portuguese Joint Liaison Group signed an agreement confirming the official status of the Chinese language in Macao.
On December 11, 1991, the Macao Visa Office of the PRC was set up.
On December 12, 1991, the cabinet of Portuguese issued a decree allowing the Chinese language to enjoy the same official status and legal power as the Portuguese language in Macao.
On January 13-15, 1993, the Drafting Committee for the Basic Law of the MSAR, at the ninth plenary session, adopted a draft Basic Law of the MSAR and draft patterns of MSAR’ s regional flag and emblem.
On March 31, 1993, the First Session of the Eighth NPC Standing Committee examined and approved the draft Basic Law of the MSAR. The session also passed resolutions on the establishment of the MSAR and methods for the formation of the first government, legislative council and judicial organs of the MSAR. It also approved the regional flag and emblem of the MSAR.
On March 31, 1993, President Jiang Zemin issued a presidential decree on publishing the Basic Law of the MSAR of the PRC and its annexes that will go into effect on December 20, 1999.
On April 29, 1998, the Second Session of the NPC Standing Committee approved the roll of the Preparatory Committee for the MSAR..
On May 5, 1998, the Preparatory Committee for the MSAR was set up in Beijing. On the same day, a countdown board on the homecoming of Macao was put up into use on the eastern side of Tian’anmen Square in Beijing.
On September 18, 1998, the Preparatory Committee held its third plenary meeting in Beijing, at which Chairman Qian Qichen announced that the central government has decided to send an appropriate number of troops to Macao at the time of the establishment of the MSAR.
On April 10, 1999, the Seventh Plenary Meeting of the Preparatory Committee for the MSAR elected a 200-member Selection Committee for the First Government of the MSAR.
On May 15, 1999, the Selection Committee elected Edmund Ho Hau Wah何厚铧first Chief Executive of the MSAR, with 163 votes in favour.
On May 20, 1999, Premier Zhu Rongji issued a State Council decree appointing Edmund Ho Hua Wah first Chinef Executive of the MSAR of the PRC.
On June 28, 1999, the Ninth NPC Standing Committee passed the Garrison Law of the MSAR at its 10th session.
On August 12, 1999, the central government appointed seven key government officials and procurator general of the MSAR upon nomination by Chief Executive of the MSAR Edmund Ho Hua Wah.
On October7, 1999, Chief Executive Edmund Ho Hau Wah nominated heads of courts of three levels in Macao.
On October 12, 1999, the First Legislative Council of the MSAR held its first plenary meeting and elected Susana Chou its chairman and Lau Cheok Va its vice chairman.
On October 19, 1999, China submitted to the United Nations the first batch of international multilateral agreements that will be applicable in Macao after its homecoming on December 20, 1999.
On October 25, 1999, the 12th Session of the Ninth NPC Standing Committee passed resolutions to abolish 12 existing laws in Macao upon the homecoming of Macao since they contravene the Basic Law of the MSAR.
On November 10, 1999, China’s State Council and Central Military Commission Jointly declared the formation of the MSAR Garrison to be sent to the region by the central government of the PRC.
On November 19, 1999, the preparatory Committee of the MSAR held its 13th and last plenary meeting in Zhuhai, Guangdong Province.
On December 20, 1999, the People’s Republic of China resumed the exercise of sovereignty over Macao.
On December 20, 2000, Jiang Zemin, general secretary of the Communist Party of China Central Committee, Chinese State president and chairman of the Central Military Commission went to Macao to attend activities celebrating the first anniversary of Macao’s return to the motherland.
Macao is a free harbour with low tax systems it has the advantage of neighbouring Pearl River Delta, the richest part of Guangdong Province.
Macao is called “an oriental gem.” And it has sparkled with a brighter economy since 2000.
More About Macao
- Chronicle of Macao
The Chronicle Of Macao Before And After Nightlife And Gambling.